Defining and measuring nature : the make of all things için kapak resmi
Başlık:
Defining and measuring nature : the make of all things
Dil:
English
ISBN:
9781627052795
Yayın Bilgileri:
San Rafael [California] (40 Oak Drive, San Rafael, CA, 94903, USA) : Morgan & Claypool Publishers, [2014]

Bristol [England] (Temple Circus, Temple Way, Bristol BS1 6HG, UK) : IOP Publishing, [2014]
Fiziksel Tanımlama:
1 online resource (various pagings) : colour illustrations.
Seri:
IOP concise physics,
Genel Not:
"A Morgan & Claypool publication as part of IOP Concise Physics"--Title page verso.

"Version: 20140301"--Title page verso.
İçerik:
Introduction

Measurement in antiquity -- Man is the measure of all things -- Seeds and cosmic forces -- The Bronze-Age -- The Roman Empire -- Further reading

Measurement in the early modern period -- 'Measured by the king's iron rod' -- Measuring the world

Measurement in the Modern World -- La Révolution Française -- Defining the size of the world -- The metric survey -- Envy, money, terror and the metric system -- The endgame -- Further reading

Falling out of favour with the metric system

Creating the language that is science -- Dividing apples with oranges to make ... something different -- The consequences of mixing units -- Derived units -- A final comment on the value of a quantity

What was not in the original metric system? -- Energy, work and power -- Electricity

Measurement in the age of scientific certainty -- The Convention du Mètre -- The CGPM, the CIPM and the BIPM

A true universal language? -- Even scientists cannot always agree on units

20th century refinements in measurement -- Two peoples separated by a common system of weights and measures

The base units of the Système international des unités -- Metre -- Kilogram -- Second -- Atomic time -- Ampere -- Kelvin -- Candela -- Mole -- Final comments on Ionizing radiation -- Further reading

For this is science -- Units of measurement must evolve, because science evolves -- The constants of nature

Re-inventing the Système international des unités : towards a Quantum-SI -- Is the kilogram getting lighter...or heavier? -- The 'smoking gun' -- The how and the why of redefinition -- The devil is in the detail -- 'Who will explain the explanations?' -- Further reading

Dialects of the single language of science -- Final thoughts on the evolution of units of measurement.
Özet:
Weights and measures form an essential part of our ingrained view of the world. It is just about impossible to function effectively without some internalized system of measurement. In this volume, I outline a history of the science of measurement, and the origin of the International System of Units ('SI'). The simplicity and coherence of the Metric System is outlined, and we see how a system of weights and measures, based on only seven fundamental quantities, can be used as the basis of all science. We will soon witness a redefinition of four of the seven fundamental quantities upon which the SI is based. This change in how we all define a number of fundamental quantities will not be subject to any discussion or appeal, humanity will be presented with a fait accompli. What will this mean for us?

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Özet

Özet

Weights and measures form an essential part of our ingrained view of the world. It is just about impossible to function effectively without some internalized system of measurement. In this volume, I outline a history of the science of measurement, and the


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Measurement helps define the world. In the past, the cubit, the distance from the tip of the elbow to the end of the middle finger, was useful because of its availability and convenience. However, the cubit was not a universal fixed value in the ancient world. Our modern world demands an international system of measurement standards in order to function effectively. This history of ever-increasing precision measurement standards reveals why the present seven fundamental quantities--the meter, the kilogram, the second, the ampere, the kelvin, the mole, and the candela--will be redefined soon in terms of Avogadro's number (NA), the electron charge (e), Boltzmann's constant (kB), and the Planck constant (h). Williams (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) provides wonderful accounts of the famous scientists who contributed to the improvements in measurement standards. These are cleverly interspersed so that a fascinating, coherent understanding of the physics history emerges. Will these new standards originating from the quantum level be comprehended by people worldwide who require reliable measuring tools? The world shall soon find out! This brief work, part of the "IOP Concise Physics" series, contains the essential diagrams and tables as well as some further reading suggestions, but no index or bibliography. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above. --Franklin Potter, University of California, Irvine